An ambulance was called to an address in south west London at 03:53 BST and the woman was taken to hospital.
Hudson-Odoi, 19, was arrested at the scene. He has been released from custody and bailed to return to a police station in mid-June as enquiries continue.
Chelsea have declined to comment.
Hudson-Odoi, who has played three times for England, became the first Premier League player to test positive for coronavirus in March.
But he made a full recovery and, like other Chelsea players, is waiting to return to training before any proposed re-start to the season.
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